Disease/ disorder mnemonics

3 P’s of Diabetes Mellitus - Type 1 Signs & Symptoms

P- Polyuria (excessive urination)
P- Polydypsia (excessive thirst)
P- Polyphagia (excessive hunger)


Right-Sided Heart Failure (HEAD)

H- Hepatomegaly
E- Edema (Bipedal)
A- Ascites
D- Distended Neck Vein


Left-Sided Heart Failure (CHOP)

C- Cough
H- Hemoptysis
O- Orthopnea
P- Pulmonary Congestion (crackles/ rales)

Eating Disorder: ANOREXIA

A-menorrhea delayed
N-o organic factors accounts for weight loss
O-bviously thin but feels FAT
R-efusal to maintain normal body weight
E-pigastric discomfort is common
X-symptoms (peculiar symptoms)
I-ntense fears of gaining weight
A-lways thinking of foods

Eating Disorder: BULIMIA

B-inge eating
U-nder strict dieting
L-acks control over-eating
I-nduced vomiting
M-inimum of to binge eating episodes
I-ncrease/Persistent concern of body size/shape
A-buse of diuretics & laxatives

fuckyeahnarcotics:

10 reasons to love a nurse
Spinal cord injury

C3- inability to control muscles of breathing

C4- no upper extremity muscle function
C5- neck movement

C6- muscle function in C5 level

C7- no finger muscle power

C8- finger muscle power

T1-T4 - good upper extremity muscle strength 

T5- L2 - balance difficulties

L3- L5- trunk- pelvis muscle function intact

L5- S3 - waddling gait
Gardner-Wells tongs 

U-shaped tongs used for spinal traction, having pressure—controlled pins that are inserted into the skull at opposite ends to permit application of a longitudinal force to the axis of the spinal column.
Halo skeletal traction may be used to immobilize a patient’s head and neck following a cervical fracture. Prevention of infectious reactions around the pin sites of halo traction is a priority in rehabilitation nursing practice. Although prophylactic treatment of skeletal pin sites is a generally accepted practice, there is great diversity of opinion and very limited systematic investigation as to how the sites should be treated. In this article, the author reviews the literature on pin site care and suggests a protocol based on the current literature.
Pacemakers 
       - electronic apparatus used to initiate heartbeat when the SA node is seriously damaged and unable to act as as a pacemaker.


PACEMAKER TEACHING:
*fundamental cardiac physiology
*daily pulse check for 1 full minute
*report any sudden slowing/speeding up of the heart rate
*importance of following up with weekly monitoring during first 1-2 months after placement & at anticipated battery depletion time
*wear loose fitting clothing around area with pacemaker
*call doctor if develop pain/redness over site
*no heavy contact sports
*carry ID card/medic alert braclette with info on model of pacemaker, rate set at, and manufacturer
*remind of need for periodic hospitalization for battery changes or possible unit replacement
TYPES

1. Levin-Single-Lumen Stomach tube
      • used to remove stomach content or providing tube feeding

2. Salem Sump - double- Lumen Stomach Tube
      • most frequently used tube for decompression with suction

3. Sengstaken- Blakemore- triple-Lumen gastric tube
    • with inflatable esophagus ballon, stomach balloon, gastric suction lumen used for treatment of bleeding esophageal varices

4.Keofeed/Dobhoff
     • soft silicone rubber, medium-length tube used for long- term feedings, placement verified by X-RAY, takes 24hrs to pass from stomach into intestines; lay on right side to facilitate passage

5. Cantor- single-lumen tube 
    • with mercury-filled balloon and suction port

6. Miller- Abbott- double- Lumen tube
    • with mercury- filled balloon and suction 

7. Harris- Single- Lumen Tube
   • with mercury- filled balloon and suction port
NCLEX RN random notes

ACTIVITY THERAPY 
- group members work on specific tasks together to promote socialization and increase self-esteem

Common S/E of NSAIDS:
-headache
-drowsiness
-dizziness
-heartburn and nausea

Less common but life threatening side effects are GI bleeding and agranulocytosis.
Any stomach pain lasting more than two days may indicate bleeding and should be investigated

CARE OF A FISTULA
-do not Take blood pressures
-perform venipunctures or start IVs in the extremity
-teach client not to sleep on affected extremity or compress extremity by carrying heavy objects

 CYTOXAN
Is an alkylating type of chemotherapy used to treat cancer
It acts by interfering with RNA replication that causes an imbalance of growth that leads to cell death.

S/E:
-cardiotoxicity
-nausea & vomiting
-leukopenia (low WBC)
-anemia (low RBC)
-reversible alopecia (hair loss)
-hepatotoxicity

This medication should not be administered by a nurse who is pregnant
Preparation and administration of this medication is associated with cardiogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic abnormalities

AMPHOTERICIN B 
Is an anti fungal medication that alters cell permeability
It is used for systemic fungal infections such as HISTOPLASMOSIS 

S/E:
-cardiac dysrhythmias
-Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis 
-thrombocytopenia 
-renal impairment
-acute liver failure 

RIFAMPIN 
Is a medication used to treat TB

S/E:
-acute renal failure
-thrombocytopenia
-hepatotoxicity 
-shock

It should be given 1hr ac or 2 hrs pc for maximum absorption

SULFAMYLON
Is a local anti-infective used in the treatment of second and third degree burns to prevent infection.
You should clean the area before applying the cream

S/E:
-metabolic acidosis
-tachypnea
-burning sensation
 

HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY 
-brain dysfunction and damage caused by increased ammonia in the blood, resulting from severe liver disease
-usually ammonia is detoxified and converted to urea by the liver cells
 Liver dysfunction -causes ammonia accumulation
Elimination of dietary protein and administration of antibiotics decreases serum ammonia

ANTIBIOTICS
-act as an intestinal antiseptic by reducing the number of intestinal bacteria capable of converting urea to ammonia

S/S:
-progressive mental and motor disturbances including COMA

NURSING RESPONSIBILITY:
-assess neuro status, I&O, VS
-assess for infection 
-monitor electrolytes
-decrease protein in diet
-give antibiotic as ordered


BLADDER ( internal inflatable balloon)
Must be correct length and width for patient’s arm
If it is too wide, readings will be abnormally low
The width of the cuff should cover approximately 2/3 of the upper arm.
When wrapped around arm, it should be 1/5 longer than circumference of arm


ERB’s POINT
-is located in the third inter coastal space just to the left of the sternum.
-The left fifth inter coastal space at the mid-clavicular line is the site of the apex of the heart, and the location of the apical impulse, or what was previous called the point of maximal impulse (PMI)
-it is called the mitral area is where you listen for the first heart sound, S1, created by the closure of the mitral a d tricuspid valves (AV VALVES)
-on,y the right lung has a middle lobe
-it is found at the fifth and sixth inter coastal space at the right mid clavicular line


FETAL HEART RATE (FHR): at term usually from 120-160bpm 

DECELERATIONS-reduction in FHR, occur during contraction

3TYPES OF DECELERATION
Early
Late
Variable

They are described by their relationship to the onset and the end of a contraction and by their shape

Early and variable decelerations are normal and usually do not indicate fetal distress
Late deceleration are associated with fetal hypoxia and acidosis


NITROGLYCERIN 
-is used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS to reduce ischemia and relieve pain by decreasing myocardial O2 consumption 
-the medication acts to dilate veins and arteries

S/E:
Throbbing headache
Flushing
Hypotension 
Tachycardia

NURSING RESPONSIBILITY
-teach appropriate administration (time,technique,dosage) 
-storage
-expected pain relief 
-possible side effects

ointment is applied to skin, with sites rotTed to avoid skin irritation
It has a prolonged effect up to 24hrs


ADDISON’s DISEASE
-deficiency of adrenocortical hormone.
-caused by surgical removal of the adrenal cortex or destruction of it idiopathically or by infections; inadequate pituitary ACTH; sudden stopping of exogenous adrenocortical hormone therapy
S/S:
Weakness
Hypoglycemia
Hypotension
Anorexia
GI symptoms
Emaciation
Dark pigmentation of skin
Low serum sodium
Low blood glucose
High serum potassium
Dehydration

ADDISONIAN CRISIS (adrenal crisis) 

Precipitated by:
Stress,surgery,trauma and infection

S/S:
Hypotension
Cyanosis
Fever
Classic shock symptoms
Headache
Abdominal pain
Nausea
Diarrhea
Confusion

Treatment-hormone replacement therapy 

Nursing responsibility 
-monitor for balance of fluid and electrolytes
-VS
-weight and BP
-teaching about diet
-medication
-activity level

THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION 
-use of silence
-broad opening question
-reflection
-summarizing
-restatement
-focusing
-open ended questions and statements 

major goal is to encourage verbalization of feelings, behaviors and experiences of patient with goal of resolving problematic areas.

 Nurse should convey acceptance, honesty, respect,interest,assistance,permission,and protection 


NONTHERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION 
-closed ended question
-Advice-giving
-talking about self
-arguing 
-false reassurance “why” questions
-judgment responses
-changing the subject
-belittling



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